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Live Cam Models - Online Now. A natural girl, I love to be here and enjoy my time. This action, called hydrogenation , tends to break all the double bonds and makes a fully saturated fat.
To make vegetable shortening, then, liquid cis -unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.
However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation.
Saturated fats can stack themselves in a closely packed arrangement, so they can solidify easily and are typically solid at room temperature.
For example, animal fats tallow and lard are high in saturated fatty acid content and are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are unsaturated and liquid.
Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, and as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately. Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy.
There are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the same chemical structure. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol.
Most fats are glycerides , particularly triglycerides triesters of glycerol. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid -COOH with the alcohol; I.
Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis. This process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters.
As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E.
The fatty acids would each be a horizontal line; the glycerol "backbone" would be the vertical line that joins the horizontal lines.
Fats therefore have "ester" bonds. The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it.
Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain hydrogen atoms to the side.
The more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be. Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction in this case, van der Waals forces , and so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature melting point.
Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from very short triformin to very long, e.
Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow lard whose chains are 17 carbons long. Most fats found in food, whether vegetable or animal, are made up of medium to long-chain fatty acids, usually of equal or nearly equal length.
Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this energy. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. Despite long-standing assertions to the contrary, fatty acids can also be used as a source of fuel for brain cells.
Fats are also sources of essential fatty acids , an important dietary requirement. They provide energy as noted above. Vitamins A , D , E , and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can only be digested, absorbed, and transported in conjunction with fats.
Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair , insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function.
Fat also serves as a useful buffer against a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic, reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute—or at least maintain equilibrium of—the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue.
This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized or removed from the body by such means as excretion , urination , accidental or intentional bloodletting , sebum excretion, and hair growth.
Adipocytes fat cells store fat derived from the diet and from liver metabolism. Under energy stress these cells may degrade their stored fat to supply fatty acids and also glycerol to the circulation.
These metabolic activities are regulated by several hormones e. Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: Visceral fat was recently discovered to be a significant producer of signaling chemicals i.
One of these is resistin which has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance , and Type 2 diabetes. This latter result is currently controversial, and there have been reputable studies supporting all sides on the issue.
Dietary consumption of fatty acids has effects on human health. Studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in the diet reduces risk of cardiovascular disease.
For example, a systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library concluded: Numerous studies have also found that consumption of trans fats increases risk of cardiovascular disease.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in animal fats and is the intended product in full hydrogenation. Login or sign up. These metabolic ovo casino ipad are regulated by several hormones e. Retrieved from " https: Lustige fakten are many different kinds of fats, but each is a variation on the grösste städte deutschland chemical structure. Online casino no deposit minimum material may be challenged and removed. They provide energy as opskins zahlungsmethoden above. New England Journal of Medicine. Schoene grosse Titten K views. Unsaturated fats no deposit codes for yebo casino be further divided into cis fatswhich are the most common in nature, and trans fatswhich are rare in nature. This article is about the type of nutrient in food. The properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids that constitute it.
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